background

History

Patriarchal gender norms and stereotypes denying the value of women as a full-fledged human being have gradually developed through historical developments. For about 10,000 years, an asymmetrical form of male-female relationship has been reproduced, based on a hierarchy in favor of men.

Matriarchy
In the early historical stages of human development, the human community, which is referred to as matriarchy, the woman was worshiped and had a dignified social status. Myth: Matriarchy was a community characterized by the domination and dominance of women over men. Matriarchal social structures have been characterized by a high degree of freedom, equality between women and men, and worship of motherhood and nature.

Patriarchate
With the development of class societies and patriarchy, a number of superstitions about women's biological peculiarities, regulations and prohibitions on women's sexual life, ideas about women's defamation by childbirth and menstruation are emerging. There are various painful ceremonies and acts aimed at consecrating adulthood, such as deprivation of virginity, knocking out a tooth, cutting off a finger…

The beginning of the perception of a woman as inferior dates back to antiquity. It is associated with the religion's understanding of the dualism of good and evil. Women's patriarchal religious conceptions have left a deep mark on the consciousness of humanity in which it is rooted - the idea of inferiority is attributed to a woman's passive position in society and demands strict standards of social exclusion.

All the world's religions are based on it: Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Judaism, Christianity. Gender stereotypes about the inferiority of women in Slovakia were derived from Judaism. Judaism codified the humiliation of women and found justification for her suffering. The very mission of a woman as a mother was considered unclean because childbirth was considered unclean. The inherited sin that Eve was guilty of is attributed to a woman. These patriarchal traditions have spread to both the Church and the Christian. Biblical texts originated in a patriarchal society and that is why they are a source of connection between NPNŽ and their social status. The status of a woman in biblical society was much lower than that of a man. Men treated women as their property, women depended on them and were thus exposed to male violence, humiliation and oppression. The main role of women in ancient times was motherhood. In ancient Rome, the position of a woman was at the level of a slave; A father had the right to kill his daughter. Deciding on her wedding at the hands of her father wandered into the hands of her husband

One of the greatest and most respected Christian theologians, Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), further strengthened the contempt for women. Coming from Aristotle, he understood the man for his sperm as an active, fertile man and the woman as a receptive, passive man. That's why he called a woman imperfect and incomplete, and even an "imperfect, incomplete man."

The end of the 14th century. The most drastic way of denigrating and declaring a woman's lowest social status in human society is to persecute women accused of so-called of witchcraft - the informant remained anonymous, during the investigation the torture was ordered by Pope Innocent IV. Under the pretext of fighting heretics and witches, the church, together with secular power, got rid of uncomfortable people, especially brave women, healers, and representatives of progressive views. The Witch's Hammer is considered to be the most shocking book in world literature. The book presents witchcraft as a typical female crime. He emphasizes, for example, that a woman pursues a man with a tendency to superstition, greed, and vanity, and because women lack physical strength, they seek help in the devil. Women - killing animals, humans, causing disease, destroying crops. Maria Theresa and Joseph II, who banned the prosecution of women for barracks, were responsible for ending the inquisition processes in Hungary (Slovakia). (It is estimated that 3-9 million women in various European countries have been victims of torture, live burns and other forms of physical and psychological liquidation. appreciation of their abilities.)

The 15th century is considered the beginning of the advocacy of equality between women and men, thanks to the first fem. of the novel by Christine de Pisano (1430) The City of Women - defended the right of women to education, recorded the actions of famous women.

16th century J.Luis Vieves pointed to spol. the importance of education and promoted the idea of gender equality

17th century The most liberal attitudes towards women were characteristic of Ang. and Fr. In fr. the first form of feminism was created - fr. preciousness. - emancipated women, kt. criticized spol. circumstances, male rudeness and authoritarian behavior of their husbands and fathers. They demanded a probationary marriage.

18th century In the period of the Great Fr. a revolution that was carried out in the spirit of freedom, equality, brotherhood !, in which many women took an active part, but did not bring the expected equality. The Declaration of Human and Civil Rights applied only to men. Maria Olympe de 1791 The French Revolution published the Declaration of the Rights of Women and Citizens, which called for the extension of the general rights of citizens to include women's rights. She was executed. Charles Fourier 18th century. he expressed for the first time the idea that in every society, the degree of emancipation of a woman is a measure of the overall emancipation and degree of development of society.

John Stuart Mill 19th century. - Women's servitude - compares the situation of women to that of slaves and servants. According to him, "if the law allows too much childbirth of one sex for another, it will hinder the whole progress and development of human society."

19th century. is considered a century of emancipation. A movement of suffragettes is emerging, they stand for the emancipation of women in the company. life, in particular universal suffrage, the right to education, to one's own property. Industrialization changed the world of work in 1830, but also family life. The women started working in factories, where they worked 13-14 hours a day, while also having to take care of the household and families. And the plight of women began to be discussed. Until the 19th century. we can talk about absolute discrimination against girls and women in access to higher education. J.J. Rousseau - 18th century. in Emil or on education, he states that a woman should confine herself to the private sphere of her competence: “A woman outside the house is always ridiculous and exposed to legitimate criticism. Imanuel Kant 18th century. Anthropology: he wrote: “Women are here to make their husbands a cozy home, and their freedom lies in the fact that they do not have to be employed. Deep thinking harms their beauty, strenuous learning or embarrassing harassment destroys their strengths, weakens their charm by which they affect the opposite sex. ” Start. 19th century. the need to provide girls with elementary education was already widely accepted, but it was still widely believed that maternity missions did not require post-school education. attendance no education. Full-fledged secondary education has progressed very slowly. Teaching to a guy. p. schools thought it was inappropriate and unnecessary for girls - a child, a kitchen, a church. They could only study at universities in exceptional cases. Each case was discussed separately. Some schools allowed studies but refused the degree. Women were denied support and scholarships, they had to prove whether they were wealthy not to pursue prostitution, because emancipated women were expected to do everything.

FEMINIST WAVES
Feminism as a women's movement seeking to defend women's interests and the practical equality of women with men in various areas of social life. The public mistakenly believes that feminism is a one-size-fits-all direction that unduly enforces women's demands at the expense of men and is not sufficiently aware that without the historical contribution of fem. movement, the level of human community organization would be significantly different, worse - perhaps similar to the so-called Third World (India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran). If equality between women and men in access to education is generally accepted today, it is the result of the emancipatory activities of women and men who have understood the societal value of education and emphasized the value of women and women's right to education.

Feminist waves:
first wave - the fight for women's rights
second wave - disruption of the myth of motherhood, Simone de Beauvoir - Second sex - a woman is not born a woman, but becomes her.
third wave - gender equality The first country to secure the right of women to vote was New Zealand in 1893.

Women's Rights
• It was not until 1861 that the first high school graduate graduated, and in 1875 the first high school graduate graduated.
• In 1918, women in Czechoslovakia gained the right to vote
• The 1993 UN General Conference on Human Rights declared for the first time the principle that "human rights are also women's rights".

Women's rights are the human rights of women and girls, understood as an integral, inalienable and inseparable part of universal human rights. The term women's rights is used when women are denied or women have demanded that these rights be exercised. Topics related to women's rights usually include:
• also requirements for the possibility of free decision,
• opportunity to work for a reasonable remuneration.

Literature:
HISTÓRIA ŽIEN, J.Cviková, J.Juráňová, Aspekt 2006
RUŽOVÝ A MODRÝ SVET, J. Cviková, J. Juráňová, Aspekt, 2003
RODOVO CITLIVÁ VÝCHOVA, M. Bosá, K. Minarovičová, EsFem 2006
SPRAVODLIVOSŤ V RODOVÝCH VZŤAHOCH , J. Cviková, J. Juráňová, Aspekt 2009
XY. IDENTITA MUŽA, E. Badinter, Aspekt 1998
DRUHÉ POHLAVIE, S. Beauvoirová, Obzor 1968
POLITIKA RODU A SEXUÁLNÍ IDENTITA, P. Barša, MUB 2002
http://www.esfem.sk/subory/rodvychova-texty/rodovo_citliva_vychova_-_diplomova_praca.pdf
http://www.sociologia.sav.sk/cms/uploaded/1147_attach_equal_rovnost_sk.pdf